Address: Department of Biological Sciences
Northern Arizona University
Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5640
Work Phone: 928-523-9158
Expertise: ecological relationships between plants and fungi
Research Interests: We are studying fungi as part of the much larger FIBR effort that examines the genetic basis for community and ecosystem ecology of cottonwoods, a critically important riparian tree. We are investigating the relationship between the diversity and community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal, ectomycorrhizal, and endophytic fungi within and between species of hybridizing cottonwoods. Our studies involve field and common garden sampling as well as culturing and molecular genetic assays of fungal communities in roots, stems and soil. We complement these community assessments with greenhouse experiments to link structure with function. Current personnel involved: J. Lamit, Z. Kovacs, B. Ji and K. Meinhardt. Links to litter and belowground fauna (microarthropods and nematodes) are being explored by T. Wotjowicz.
- Whitham, T. G.; J. K. Bailey; J. A. Schweitzer; S. M. Shuster; R. K. Bangert; C. J. LeRoy; E. V. Lonsdorf; G. J. Allan; S. P. DiFazio; B. M. Potts; D. G. Fischer; C. A. Gehring; R. L. Lindroth; J. C. Marks; S. C. Hart; G. M. Wimp and S. C. Wooley 2006. A framework for community and ecosystem genetics: from genes to ecosystems. Nature Reviews Genetics 7:510 - 523.abstract.fulltext PDF.
- Gehring, C. A., Mueller, R. C. and T. G. Whitham 2006. Environmental and genetic effects on the formation of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in cottonwoods. Oecologia 149:158-164.fulltext PDF.
- Whitham, T. G.; E. Lonsdorf; J. A. Schweitzer; J. K. Bailey; D. G. Fischer; S. M. Shuster; R. L. Lindroth; S. C. Hart; G. J. Allan; C. A. Gehring; P. Keim; B. M. Potts; J. Marks; B. J. Rehill; S. P. DiFazio; C. J. LeRoy; G. M. Wimp; and S. Woolbright 2005. "All effects of a gene on the world": extended phenotypes, feedbacks, and multi-level selection. Ecoscience 12:5-7.abstract.fulltext PDF.
- Whitham, T. G.; W. P. Young; G. D. Martinsen; C. A. Gehring; J. A. Schweitzer; S. M. Shuster; G. M. Wimp; D. G. Fischer; J. K. Bailey; R. L. Lindroth; S. Woolbright and C. R. Kuske 2003. Community and ecosystem genetics: A consequence of the extended phenotype. Ecology 84:559-573.abstract.fulltext PDF.
- Brown, J. H.; T. G. Whitham; S. K. Morgan Ernest and C. A. Gehring 2001. Complex species interactions and the dynamics of ecological systems:
long-term experiments. Science 293:643-650.abstract.fulltext PDF.
- Gehring, C. A.; T. C. Theimer; T. G. Whitham and P. Keim 1998. Ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure of pinyon pines growing in two environmental extremes. Ecology 79:1562-1572.abstract.fulltext PDF.
- Cobb, N. S.; S. Mopper; C. A. Gehring; M. Caouette; K. M. Christensen and T. G. Whitham 1997. Increased moth herbivory associated with environmental stress of pinyon pine at local and regional levels. Oecologia 109:389-397.abstract.fulltext PDF.
- Gehring, C. A.; N. S. Cobb and T. G. Whitham 1997. Three-way interactions among ectomycorrhizal mutualists, scale insects, and resistant and susceptible pinyon pines. American Naturalist 149:824-841.abstract.fulltext PDF.
- Gehring, C. A. and T. G. Whitham 1995. Duration of herbivore removal and environmental stress affect the ectomycorrhizae of pinyon pines. Ecology 76:2118-2123.abstract.fulltext PDF.
- Gehring, C. A. and T. G. Whitham 1994. Interactions between aboveground herbivores and the mycorrhizal mutualists of plants. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 9:251-255.abstract.fulltext PDF.
- Gehring, C. A. and T. G. Whitham 1992. Reduced mycorrhizae on Juniperus monosperma with mistletoe: the influence of environmental stress and tree gender on a plant parasite and a plant-fungal mutualism. Oecologia 89:298-303.abstract.fulltext PDF.
- Gehring, C. A. and T. G. Whitham 1991. Herbivore-driven mycorrhizal mutualism in insect-susceptible pinyon pine. Nature 353:556-557.abstract.fulltext PDF.